Study on Applying Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Human Caring Theory to Construct the Optimal Companion Model
|School||Huazhong University of Science and Technology|
|Keywords||companion need companion model inpatient reliability test validity test|
Objectives: To devlepment a tool for evaluating the companion needs of inpatients. Investigate the companion models and the companion needs of inpatients in three A-level general hospitals. Analyze the influencing factors of the inpatients’companion needs. To explore reasonable companion models which can provide full, comprehensive, quality care for inpatients, and protect medical safety, promote patient harmony.Methods: This study was based on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Jean Watson’s human caring theory. Research methodologies included literature review, the seminar and expert advice, and then develeped the questionnaire on the companion needs of inpatients, and carried on the preinvestigation. The questionnaire’s reliability was tested by Cronbach’sαcoefficient and Split-half reliability coefficient. The questionnaire’s validity was tested by content validity and construct validity. The questionnaire of companion needs for inpatients was designed by ourselves. 526 inpatients in the three A-level general hospitals were surveyed by the questionnaire. Statistics Package for Social Science 16.0(SPSS16.0) was used to describe the basic information of inpatients, to analyze the dimensions and the items scores of the questionnaire, to compare the differences of inpatients companion needs who had different demographic factors, and then to explore the factors which impact the inpatients’companion needs. A rational and efficient companion model was proposal based on the findings.Results: First, the questionnaire on the companion needs of inpatients was divided into five dimentions. They were physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. The total Cronbach’sαcoefficient of the questionnaire was 0.948, and the dimensions’Cronbach’sαcoefficient were 0.822～0.917, all of them were above 0.80. The total split-half reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.934, and the dimensions’were 0.798～0.886,which were above 0.70. The content validity rate was 0.853 for the whole questionnaire. The dimentions’CVR were 0.798～0.896, and all items were 0.75～1.0. All CVRs were above 0.75. Correlation between dimensions and the total questionnaire were 0.694～ 0.849. Correlation between dimensions were 0.426～0.643. The factor loadings of the 30 items were above 0.40 by factor analysis. 5 components were extracted with principle components analysis method with eigenvalues over 1 as criteria. The cumulative contribution of variance was 67.662%. This result has shown that the questionnaire has good reliability and validity. Second, esteem needs was the highest level and physiological needs was the lowest level in the five companion needs. The satisfied companion needs was the physiological needs which was the highest level and the disatisfied companion needs was the esteem needs which was the lowest level. Patients in hospital mainly were cared by their family members, the constribution ratio was 78.59%, and simultaneously 72.75% inpatients hoped their family members to provide caring. Third, there was a statisticaly significant difference(P<0.05) between nursing rank, gender, payment of medical expenses, whether had companions, whether hoped have companions, the companion time and the self-care ability. The factors which influenced the inpatients’demands were gender, payment of medical expenses, whether hoped have companions, the companion time and the self-care ability.Conclusions: The questionnaire has good reliability and validity which can evaluate the actual demands of companion and psychological status of inpatients. The companion needs is in the high level. The esteem needs was the highest level but also the lowest level of satisfaction, indicating that nurses should pay attention to the esteem needs of inpatients. The physiological needs were the lowest level but the highest level of satisfaction, indicating that the physiological needs were satified well. Patients in hospital mainly were cared by their family members, and they hoped their family members to provide caring. Gender, payment of medical expenses, whether hoped have companions, the companions time and the self-care ability were the factors which influenced inpatients’companion needs.