Study of Equalization of Baisic Public Services in the Modernization Process of Contemporary China
|Keywords||Modernization Equalization of basic public services Urban-rural integration|
Since the Industrial Revolution, the speed of modernization is spanking in West, including not only Hurricane-style development in industrial production capacity,but also the gradual improvement of the political system. Since the reform and opening up, our country’s productivity levels is unprecedented growing in the thirty years, China has to modernization’s take-off stage. This is a strategic opportunity period and the prominent contradictions period, we can not continue to go up in the modernization until resolve conflict during this period, which in order to avoid "the Latin American trap."The process of modernization can be understood as four sub-processes: technology development; agricultural development; industrialization; urbanization. Urbanization is urbanization, which is the inevitable outcome of modernization. China’s urbanization process is inevitable, but the road of the Western tradition of the city is clearly not in line with our national conditions of 1.3 billion people, and only in the process of modernization, with the basic concept of equalization of public services urban and rural development, gradually realizing the integration of urban and rural areas, and ultimately we can accomplish triumphantly the modernization of modernity and reach a modern country.This vision is based on modern perspective to see equalization of basic public services, first in the concept, analyzing the modernization, the equalization of basic public services and urban-rural integration carefully,and putting forward the appropriate definition of the concept and related issues introduction. This paper argues that modernization is through a series of social change path of political and economic,making traditional characteristics of the society derived gradually, and ultimately to achieve a modern society;equalization of basic public services is defined as:within a country, the citizens of different ethnic,age,color,area,property,status, religious belief and so on, in the enjoyment of government departments providing compulsory education, public health, basic social security, basic shelter and other basic public service (product),have roughly the same level;and urban-rural integration is a process, which is in the process of modernization,under the conditions of highly developed productive forces,the urban and rural areas achieving integration,leading the county by city, mutual resources, mutual services, and achieving the economic, social, cultural, ecological development process between urban and rural areas.Then on this basis, the paper analyze the meaning of modernization, equalization of basic public services, urban-rural integration. Their relationship can be simply stated as:modernization requires the equalization of basic public services, the latter advance modernization, and reach urban-rural integration of modernity. Specifically, the equalization of basic public services is a take-off stage in modernization,which is the key to modernization transition to mature, then equalization of basic public services is one aspect of the primary urban-rural integration,which can promote the development of equalization of basic public services.Urban-rural integration is a advanced modernization,which can co-ordination the relationship between urban and rural, is also a key step to achieve modernization in China.The fourth part of the article analysis on our institutional barriers in the process of modernization,and the reason of the unequalization of the basic public service between rural and urban areas from history, realistic.the source reason is the urban-rural dual economic and social policies under planned economic system, including household registration system which serious impediment to rural-urban migration, heavy industry strategic under the planned economic system, "scissors" policy in industrial and agricultural product prices; Of course, the reality is that public service provision mechanism is still no fundamental reform, the supply of public services in a non-equalization policy mechanisms, including public finance system led to urban and rural areas unequalization in basic public services, the dual supply system of basic public services, etc.; The most direct reason is inequality of inputs in public finance system, including public health,compulsory education, basic social security inequality.In the final part, this paper from deeply system reform to administrative reform, from practice model innovation to system construction,set forth how to achieve equalization of basic public services in the process of modernization,then achieve urban and rural integration. First, in System Reform,we should break away with the dual structure in rural and urban area, establishment of relevant legislation, improve the support for the modernization of agriculture policy, Government’s modernization strategy support to agriculture; Secondly, in the Administration System Reform, we should changes the distribution pattern of different treatment of urban and rural areas,and establish Pratt public service supply system and strengthen reform of public fiscal system,promotion a public administration decision-making process with social justice, establish and improve urban-rural integration public administration Service system; Thirdly, this paper presents a kind of equalization of basic public services in practice:Established rural public services Hall,base on "town" and attempt how to test the degree of equalization of basic public services, we should continue to use the concept of equalization of urban and rural in order to achieve our ultimate goal of modernization. Finally, with "second Five-Year " plan and foreign experience, we discusses the paths which construct the system of equalization of basic public services.