Research on Rousseau’s Thoughts of the Form of Government
|School||Hunan Normal University|
|Keywords||Jean-Jacques Rousseau Government forms thought Administrative reform Revelation|
With the further development of the reform of the economic system, it’s desperately imperative to promote the reform of government organizations and administrative innovation. However, the issue of government organizations’reform not only involves the "adjustment of institutions", but also includes the form of the government. This study tries to find some theoretical bases and guidance of reform from the theory of government’s form supported by Rousseau.This study strives to get rid of the narrow view of "commenting on the form of the government by the form of the government", and locate Rousseau’s theory of the government’s form with three factors, which are, Rousseau’s theory of political philosophy and political economy, his unique life experience, personality, world outlook and values, and Rousseau’s direct illustration about "the form of the government". With the three factors, the essence of his theory can be fully and accurately grasped. Only if the true Rousseau is known, can we understand what Rousseau really wants to demonstrate. Only when Rousseau’s theory of the government’ form is put into the ideological system which consists of his political philosophy and political economy, and even Rousseau’s religious belief and educational thoughts, can we grasp his theory of the government’s form completely. From a static view, Rousseau’s theory of the government’s form is composed by the definition of the government’s form, the classification of the government’s form, the criterion of a well-organized government and the realistic state of the government’s form. In fact, the essence of his theory lies neither on the scale of the government’s form, which means the amount of administrators, nor on the political community’s natural and social environment, and conditions of culture and resources. The key point is how the government, an intermediate object, which is essentially a "subordinate" to the authorities, harmonizes the interest and desires between itself and the public. Giving consideration to what mentioned above is vital to understand Rousseau’s theory of the government’s form. From a dynamic view, Rousseau’s so-called the government’s form is a life process, which keeps evolving and transmuting, and transforms from one form to another. When the state is disintegrated, or when the government doesn’t abide by the public’s will, the social contact will lapse automatically and the citizens will regain their freedom thereon. While, the most crucial reason for the evolvement of the government’s form is the permanent conflicts among private interest, public interest and state interest in the national community.Rousseau’s theory of the government’s form surely possesses some weak points, which, however, cannot obscure its virtues. This study tries to dig out the significance of reference that Rousseau’s theory of the government’s form has for China’s reform practice and strives to propose some corresponding thoughts about the reform. Given to our country’s practice of reform, we do believe that no matter what tactics will be taken for the administrative reform, or what methods will be adopted, the chief principles are as follows: all is for a better embodiment of the will and interest of the people; the separation of the party and the government should be the biggest base for the administrative reform; China’s administrative reform should conform to the principle of balanced development between the governmental power and the social power, making the former supports the latter and the latter supplements the former.