Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Winter Wheat in Mid Henan Under High-Yielding Condition
|Keywords||Wheat Mid Henan Growth physiology Accumulation grain yield|
Mid Henan is a major production area of winter wheat in Henan Province. In order to investigate the appropriate nitrogen application pattern in middle Henan, this experiment was conducted in Luo he agricultural institute from 2009 to 2010. The field experimental was arranged by split plot design. Basal nitrogenapplication was the main factor, andthere were 3levels under this facter, which was: the whole growth period were not applied N fertilizer (N0), basal application of N fertilizer 8kg per acre (N8) and 12kg (N12). And topdressing nitrogen application was the vice factor, under N120 treatment,respectively, N fertilizer recovery 0,6,10,14 kg per acre; under N12 treatment, respectively, N fertilizer recovery 0,6,10 kg per acre. We studied the effect of total amount of N application, basal nitrogen, topdressing nitrogen and base their ratio on individual growth of winter wheat in the flag leaf growth and physiological filling stage, and the accumulation of photosynthetic products and nitrogen accumulation and translocation and grain yield. The main results were as follows:1. For morphology of the winter wheat, sufficient nitrogen let the wheat grow well and conducive to seedling tillers spikes, topdressing nitrogen nutrition could solve the contradiction between vegetative and reproductive growth, the winter wheat population structure was more reasonable and the bearing tiller was hingher.2. The experiment showed that supplication of sufficient nitrogen could maintain a high physical activity in winter wheat leaves. adding topdressing nitrogen at Jointing stage could increase the chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis rate, nitrate reductase activity in leaves and the activity in root during late growing stage, decrease the malonaldehyde content in leaves after heading stage. Therefore, it was favorable for delaying the leaf senescence, extending the gain-filling peried and improve the grain accumulation of wheat.3. In the case of sufficient basal fertilizer, supplying right amount of nitrogen fertilizer at jointing stage could be conducive to the vegetative organs of wheat photosynthetic products in the production, accumulation, and the operation of grains, while enhancing the absorption of N, storage, and operation of grains. Different nitrogen application modes were significantly different. 4. Nitrogen management influence significantly on grain weight and quality of winter wheat. The grain weight and yield were highly positive correlation. N8+10 treatment could get the highest yield, so adequate basal Nitrogin with sufficient nitrogen supplying at the jointing stage can significiently increase the N content in grains.5. Nitrogen basal/topdressing ratio was 4/5and topdressing at the jointing stage was the appropriate nitrogen model in Mid Henan under the total pure nitrogen apply was 18kg per acre. In this mode, the vegetative growth and reproductive growth of wheat could be coordinate,while the grain number and grain weight could be highly increased; This nitrogen fertilization could avoid the waste of nitrogen with high economic efficiency. Therefore, this model could improve grain yield and quality synchronously.