The Impact of Tourism on Typical Vegetation in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi Province
|Keywords||Tourism impact indicators Level impact area Principal Component Analysis Classification and Ordination Species diversity Similarity of species|
The Luyashan Mountain Natural Reserve (LMNR), a well-known tourism spots, lies in junction with three counties of Niwu Wuzai and Kelan in the northern part of Luliang mountain range in Shanxi Province. It was designated as the national AAAA level scenic area in 2010. The mountain has abundant species, various vegetation types and highly diversified habitats. This thesis selected two typical tourist attractions in LMNR, namely Bingkouwa and Heyeping to study the impacts of tourism on forest and meadow vegetations through the quantitative ecological methods including plant classification, ordination, principal component analysis, correlation analysis, species diversity, and species composition. The major studying results are as follows:(1) The TWINSPAN classification divided the area into 6 impact zones by the extent of tourism influences, reflecting the alternations in spatial pattern by tourism activities, where the trails were used as the axis. The correlation analysis revealed significant relationships among 3 out of 12 pairs of tourism indicators, namely Cp vs. TD, Cr vs. CP, and Cr vs. TD. Meanwhile the H’and S were found well correlated. The PC A analysis of 12 impact indicators showed five principal components which closely related with seven impact indicators, accounting for 81.88% of comprehensive information. The results of tourism affected zone level division by seven tourism impact indicators and twelve tourism impact indicators were the same. This simplifies the selection for tourism impact indicators for application purpose.(2) Meadows community in subalpine meadow travel section was divided into 4 groups with TWINSPAN. The meadow vegetation dynamic change characteristics was reflected under the different tourism disturbance intensity. They included the grade-Ⅰ(poor) vegetation associations, grade-Ⅱ(good) vegetation associations, grade-Ⅲ(better) vegetation associations, and grade-Ⅳ(best) vegetation associations. The habitat and characteristics of tourism disturbance were described. The DCCA ordination of 9 transects and community species reflected the ecological effects of 6 tourism environmental factors. Surface bare degrees and slope play a decisive role in the distribution of plant communities in 6 environmental factors. Surface bareness level was determined by trample of Travelers and livestock. Patrick species richness index showed:class-Ⅰdistrict> class-Ⅲdistrict> class-Ⅱdistrict> class-Ⅳdistrict. Heip and Sheldon Evenness indices showed: class-Ⅰdistrict> class-Ⅳdistrict> class-Ⅱdistrict> class-Ⅲdistrict. Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices and species richness showed the same trend.(3)The survey found 51 herbaceous species of 44 genera in 26 families in typical vegetation areas in LMNR using sampling transects. They contains 26 meadow herbaceous species of 22 genera in 16 families, and 33 forest herbaceous species of 30 genera in 22 families. According to the distribution rule, the importance value positively increased along with the annual herb species number. On the contrary, the dominant position of constructive species showed weakening trend. The species comparisons found that the species similarity coefficient was between 47% and 84% for meadow species at 4 ranks; the similarity coefficient of was between 48%-73% among the forest species at 6 ranks; and the similarity between the meadow vegetation and forest vegetation was found 27%.