Study on Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior to Calcium Nutrition Among Patients with Hypertension in a Community
|School||Anhui Medical University,|
|Course||Public Health and Preventive Medicine|
|Keywords||community patient with hypertension calcium nutrition knowledge attitude behavior|
Objective To describe the current status and population distribution characteristics of calcium nutritional knowledge, attitude, and behavior of patients with hypertension in community; to analyze the relationships between these three factors; to explore the relationship between blood pressure control with the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and provide scientific basis for further nutrition guidance for hypertensive patients in the community in order to improve their calcium nutrition and blood pressure control.Methods 660 confirmed hypertensive patients from 6 villages in Ouhai district of Whenzhou city were chosen by cluster sampling, who received the thorough household surveys. The basic information and calcium nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of these subjects were collected by a self-designed questionnaire, and their blood pressures were measured as well.Results 601 patients completed the questionnaires, and the valid rate was 93.9%, including 356 male (59.2%) and 245 female (40.8%),whose average age were 58.6±13.3 years and 53.7±14.2 years respectively. The average score of calcium nutritional knowledge was 40.7±18.7, and the qualified rate was 19.6%. The awareness rate was generally lower. Most patients reported their calcium nutritional knowledge came from television and medical workers, and they preferred these two paths. Data revealed that significant difference was found between different ages, education levels, professions and economic status, those who were with higher age, lower education, weaker economic status got lower score and qualified rate. The mean score of calcium nutrition knowledge was higher among those whose blood pressures were under control, but no difference was found in qualified rate. Only 40% subjects were interested in knowledge, and less than half of the patients wished to get calcium nutritional knowledge, or adjust their dietary habit to intake more calcium. Less than 2/3 patients had the habit of intake milk or dairy products, but with a lower average daily intake (105.7±76.5ml). About 1/2 patients often ingested beans/bean products or fish and shrimp. The minority of people (17.3%) took calcium products on their own accord or by suggestions from others. Spearman rank correlation showed calcium nutritional knowledge only related to the intakes of beans/bean products, and fish and shrimp, while attitudes related to intakes of all the three calcium-rich foods. Uni-variable logistic regression found high intakes of milk/dairy products and beans/bean products were beneficial factors for blood pressure control, while no wish to adjust dietary habit to intake more calcium, male, low education, age more than 60 years, and taking medicine irregularly were risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated age more than 60 years and taking medicine irregularly were risk factors for blood control.Conclusion Community patients with hypertension are deficient in calcium nutritional knowledge. Quite a number of them aware little about the relationship between calcium supplement and blood pressure control, neglect to the knowledge, and take insufficient calcium-rich food. Calcium intake behavior relates to the knowledge to a certain extent, whereas it relates to the attitude more closely. Calcium education should be emphasized particularly on those who are elder, with lower education, and weaker economic status. Behavior intervention methods should be carried out to strengthen the patients’attitudes and behavior transition to improve their calcium intake level more than knowledge popularization. Community health workers ought to advocate hypertensive patients to intake more milk/dairy products and beans/bean products, and focus on aged people and those who use medicine irregularly in the management of hypertension cases.