Dissertation
Dissertation > Medicine, health > Internal Medicine > Heart, blood vessels ( circulatory ) disease > Abnormal blood pressure > Hypertension

Effect of Different Emotion Regulation Modes on Activities of Autonomic Nervous System of Essential Hypertensive Patients with Type A Personality under Emotion Stimulis

Author ZhangJuan
Tutor RenHui
School Third Military Medical University
Course Nursing
Keywords hypertension, essential type A personality emotion emotion regulation anger
CLC R544.1
Type Master's thesis
Year 2010
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Essential hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease during middleaged and old people in our country. It may cause damages on target organs includig heart, brain, kidney and blood vessels, which would affect the quality of life or even threaten the life of the patients. It also brings heavy economic burden to the country.Etiological studies pay great attention to psychological factors especially emotion factors in recent decades. Studies suggest that anxiety, anger, depression and hostility were risk factors for development of essential hypertension and those negative emotions also influenced the curative effect and prognosis of disease. Type A behavior pattern was one kind of personality initially abstracted from patients with coronary heart disease, which was characterized as“time-hurry/impatience”and“competitive/hostility”. Later studies suggest that type A personality also take great proportion in essential hypertensive patients and it is closely associated with negative emotions. Meanwhile, anxiety is prevalent in patients with type A personality, which may alter circadian rhythm of blood pressure and subsequently result in target organ damage. Therefore, proper emotion regulation is important for essential hypertensive patients especially for those with type A personality to improve curative effect and prognosis.“Consensual process model of emotion regulation”put forward by Gross provides theoretical and practical foundation on which individual emotional experience and physiological reaction could be modified through cognitive and behavioral intervention. Based on the theory, the study analysed the effect of different emotion regulation modes on autonomic nervous activities of essential hypertensive patients with type A personality under anger and pleasure stimulis from the neurophysiological perspective in order to seek reliable evidence for emotion management methods and mental health education. The outcomes and conclusions of this study were described as follows:1. Behavior-restraint mode caused greater increasing changes on SBP(p<0.01)and LFnorm(p<0.05), higher degree of arousal(p<0.05)and longer recovery time of SC(p<0.05)on patients with type A personality than patients with non-A personality when facing anger stimuli, which suggest that behavior-restraint mode significantly increased activation of Sympathetic Nervous System(SNS), strengthened emotion experience and prolonged emotion reaction duration of patients with type A personality. When facing pleasure stimuli, there were no differences either on physiological reaction or emotion experience between two groups.2. Affective-appeal mode caused greater increasing change on HFnorm(p<0.01), lower degree of arousa(lp<0.05)and longer recovery time of SC(p<0.05)on patients with type A personality than patients with non-A personality when facing anger stimuli, which suggest that affective-appeal mode significantly increased activation of Parasympathetic Nervous System(PNS), weakened emotion experience but prolonged emotion reaction duration of patients with type A personality. When facing pleasure stimuli, affective-appeal mode caused greater decreasing change on HR and LFnorm(p<0.05), shorter recovery time of SC ( p < 0.01 ) on patients with type A personality, which suggest that affective-appeal mode significantly decreased activation of SNS, shortened emotion reaction duration of patients with type A personality.3. Cognitive-focus mode caused greater increasing change on SBP(p<0.01), greater decreasing change on RMSSD and Temp(p<0.05), lower degree of delight(p<0.01)and longer recovery time of HR(p<0.05) on patients with type A personality than patients with non-A personality when facing anger stimuli, which suggest that cognitive-focus mode significantly increased activation of SNS, enhanced emotion experience and prolonged emotion reaction duration of patients with type A personality. When facing pleasure stimuli, cognitive-focus mode caused less decreasing change on LFnorm(p<0.01), lower degree of dominance(p<0.05), shorter recovery time of BVP(p<0.01)on patients with type A personality, which suggest that cognitive-focus mode significantly increased activation of SNS, but weakened emotion experience and shortened emotion reaction duration of patients with type A personality.4. When facing anger stimuli, there were no differences either in physiological reaction or emotion experience between two groups under self-comfort mode. When facing pleasure stimuli, self-comfort mode caused lower degree of arousal(p<0.05)but longer recovery time of SC(p<0.05)on patients with type A personality, which suggest that self-comfort mode significantly weakened emotion experience, but prolonged emotion reaction duration of patients with type A personality.5. Under anger stimuli, as to patients with type A personality, cognitive-focus mode significantly increased SBP, DBP and HR(p<0.01); behavior-restraint mode significantly increased SBP compared with other modes except cognitive-focus ( p < 0.01 ) . Cognitive-focus mode significantly decreased BVP compared with simple-watch, self-comfort and affective-appeal modes(p<0.05); behavior-restraint mode significantly decreased BVP compared with affective-appeal mode(p<0.05). Cognitive-focus and behavior-restraint modes significantly increased SC(p<0.05). Cognitive-focus mode significantly decreased Temp compared with self-comfort and affective-appeal modes(p<0.05). On the aspect of emotion experience, behavior-restraint and cognitive-focus modes significantly strengthened degree of arousal compared with self-comfort mode(p<0.05). Behavior-restraint mode significantly lowered degree of dominance compared with simple-watch, self-comfort and cognitive-focus mode(sp<0.05). On the aspect of recovery time of ANS, cognitive-focus mode significantly prolonged recovery time of HR compared with simple-watch and affective-appeal modes ( p < 0.05 ) . Cognitive-focus mode significantly prolonged recovery time of Temp compared with affective-appeal mode(p<0.01). As to patients with non-A personality, cognitive-focus mode significantly increased SBP(p<0.01), DBP(p<0.05) and HR(p<0.01) and significantly decreased Temp(p<0.05). Affective-appeal mode significantly decreased SBP(p<0.01). Affective- appeal mode significantly decreased HR compared with behavior-restraint mode(p<0.01). On the aspect of emotion experience, affective-appeal mode significantly strengthened degree of arousal compared with self-comfort mode(p<0.05). On the aspect of recovery time of ANS, cognitive-focus mode significantly prolonged recovery time of SC compared with behavior-restraint and affective-appeal modes(p<0.01); simple-watch mode significantly prolonged recovery time of SC compared with affective-appeal mode(p<0.01). All the outcomes above suggest that cognitive-focus mode significantly increased activation of ANS especially of SNS, and it prolonged recovery time of autonomic nervous activity comparing with other modes. Cognitive-focus mode also strengthened emotion experience of patients with type A personality. Behavior-restraint mode could not weaken emotion experience for either group and it significantly increased activation of SNS in patients with type A personality. Affective-appeal mode significantly decreased activation of SNS in patients with non-A personality. Self-comfort weakened emotional experience but not activation of ANS.6. Under pleasure stimuli, as to patients with type A personality, affective-appeal mode significantly increased SBP compared with simple-watch and behavior-restraint modes(p <0.05). Affective-appeal and cognitive-focus modes significantly decreased BVP compared with self-comfort mode(p<0.05). Affective-appeal and cognitive-focus modes significantly increased HFnorm compared with simple-watch mode ( p < 0.05 ) . Behavior-restraint, self-comfort and affective-appeal modes significantly decreased Temp compared with simple-watch mode(p<0.05). On the aspect of emotion experience, self-comfort mode significantly lowered degree of arousal compared with simple-watch, affective-appeal and cognitive-focus modes(p<0.05). On the aspect of recovery time of ANS, affective-appeal mode significantly prolonged recovery time of SC; simple-watch mode significantly shortened recovery time of SC(p<0.01). As to patients with non-A personality, affective-appeal mode significantly increased SBP(p<0.05). Simple-watch mode significantly decreases SBP and HR(p<0.05). Cognitive-focus mode significantly increased SC compared with simple-watch and self-comfort modes(p<0.05). On the aspect of emotion experience, affective-appeal mode significantly strengthened target emotion compared with self-comfort mode(p<0.05). Cognitive-focus mode significantly strengthened degree of dominance compared with behavior-restraint and self-comfort modes(p<0.05). On the aspect of recovery time of ANS, cognitive-focus mode significantly prolonged recovery time of BVP compared with simple-watch, behavior-restraint and self-comfort modes(p<0.05). Affective-appeal mode significantly prolonged recovery time of SC(p<0.05). Simple-watch and self-comfort modes significantly shortened recovery time of SC(p<0.05). All the outcomes above suggest that affective-appeal significantly increased activation of ANS and prolonged recovery time of autonomic nervous activity. Cognitive-focus increased activation of autonomic nervous. It also strengthened emotion experience and prolonged recovery time of ANS on patients with non-A personality. Self-comfort significantly weakened emotion experience.

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