Discussions on the Contributions and Problems of the EU Common Agricultural Policy
|Keywords||European Union Common Agricultural Policy European integration Interes|
As an important sector of national development, agriculture policy has played a vital role in the development process of agriculture. The EU Common Agricultural Policy is the core contents of the EU common policy. Together with the EU customs union, these two policies are considered the two pillars of European economic integration. In the 40 years of implementation, the EU Agricultural Policy has played a decisive role to the EU members and has made the EU switch agricultural import countries to major agricultural export countries and has achieved rapid agricultural recovery and development. However, with the pace of European integration, political and economic changes have taken place, the Common Agricultural Policy has made great achievements in the meantime, and there are also many problems, which have become the focus of these conflicts. The paper tries to discuss contributions and problems of the EU Common Agricultural Policy and explore the process of European integration.This article is divided into four parts. The first part explains the background of the Common Agricultural Policy and the relationship between the Common Agricultural Policy and the European Community. Agriculture, as the foundation of the national economy, the main source of human food, has been of great importance to European countries. Before the European Common Agricultural Policy, there existed wave of agricultural protection. After World War II, the protection of agricultural policy is determined by the common policy, not by individual countries with the operation of European integration. The Common Agricultural Policy gradually formed at the background of European integration and the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1950s led to the formation of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Member States have the differences in interests about the implementation Common Agricultural Policy. Charles de Gaulle struggled for the implementation of the policy, and finally made the member countries reach a consensus.The second part is the overview of the Common Agricultural Policy, a brief introduction to the objectives, principles, operational mechanisms and reform of the Common Agricultural Policy. Clear objectives, systematic principles, sound mechanism and complete implementation of the policy system are the basic characteristics of Common Agricultural Policy. This section is designed for an overview of the Common Agricultural Policy to understand the operation of the Common Agricultural Policy and its development and changes. The reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is set to start from the operation mechanism, which is the focus of contradictions. A brief introduction to this part will give us a clear view of the advantages of the Common Agricultural Policy, and the source of problems.For example, from the principle of priority of the Community, we can understand that the Common Agricultural Policy is supra-national, which is the benefit of the Common Agricultural Policy. Developing the agricultural economy at the same time, the policy takes into account the interests of the members of the EC for the European integration service. But it is also the focus of the issue of conflicts, the existence of supra-national nature of the Common Agricultural Policy in the operation means that there is bound to the growth of the economy, the issue of vague interest, which is the source of budget crisis.The third part discusses the contribution of the Common Agricultural Policy. Common Agricultural Policy has made important contributions to promoting European agricultural development, the stability of agricultural markets and the building of European economic integration. The implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy has achieved the Treaty of Rome to a certain degree, and changed the condition that the supply of agricultural products imported mainly dependent on external conditions in the early postwar period, and guaranteed effectively food security in Europe, which decreased the EU dependence on the world market. It increased agricultural production, competitiveness and agricultural income and living standards of employees. The implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy has promoted the development of European economic integration, which has laid a foundation for a common market ahead of schedule. At the same time, the implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy maintained a balance of the EU, a balance to the interests of the member states. It maintained the balance of interests of industrial and agricultural the countries and developed areas and less developed regions.The fourth part discusses the problems and the reasons of the Common Agricultural Policy. Before the Common Agricultural Policy, there existed the internal policy debate on agriculture. And after the implementation of the policy, problems still emerged one after another. The financial burden of Common Agricultural Policy once triggered the 1980s budget crisis, resulting in contradictions, net expenditure country, and high agricultural subsidies. Although after reform, this problem has not been solved. Common Agricultural Policy, realizing the agricultural self-sufficiency, increasing agricultural income levels, led to the socio-economic problems at the same time. Products overweighed and caused the wastage. With the increase of high-quality agricultural professionals as well as efficient production tools, the spread of the problem of surplus rural labor force emerged; environmental protection and food safety called into question; the interests of the inequitable distribution of internal conflicts led to deterioration of member states; the expanding income gap between farmers and non-agricultural workers; the declining of farmers ability to respond to market; the farmers over-dependence on the Government. The protection clauses of Common Agricultural Policy caused conflicts with the terms of agreements with the WTO, which led to international agricultural trade disputes. The reform later time were also related to the problems.Common Agricultural Policy is the cornerstone of European integration, and the code of conduct in market and the implementation of EU agricultural production. Common Agricultural Policy is the European economic integration in a concrete manifestation of the agricultural sector. The problems of the Common Agricultural Policy are closely related to the problems of the EU integration process. To some extent, it is the key to the problems in Europe. Through research of problems and contributions to the Common Agricultural Policy, we can explore advantages and disadvantages in the process of European integration and conflicts of interests among the member countries, which had reference function to agricultural reform in our country.