Dissertation > History, geography > Asian History > East Asia > Japan

A Comparative Study of Modern China and Japan to employ foreign experts

Author XuMaoHui
Tutor HuangZunYan
School Qufu Normal University
Course Modern Chinese History
Keywords Westernization Movement Meiji government Foreign experts Employ Difference
CLC K313
Type Master's thesis
Year 2009
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From the 1860s to the end of the 19th century, the intake of Western civilization in China and Japan to promote the process of national modernization, have to hire a large number of foreign experts. In this paper, a comprehensive comparison of this historical phenomenon from one side illustrates Modern fate of reasons, which summed up a few of the lessons learned and historical revelation. Through the employment of foreign experts on the Sino-Japanese starting point and the process of comparison, it is found that there are many different points. (1) The starting point is different: China occur in the process of employing Foreign the Westernization and diehards fierce controversy and conflict, it started late and slow progress; Japan did not happen a similar controversy and conflict, Therefore, the early start, fast pace; exist to maintain the feudal rule (China) and the development of capitalism (Japan) and the purpose of hiring other. (2) number of employees: Japan far more than China; and Japan, as a small country compared to the boss, the average density is higher. (3) the occupational distribution of the employed foreign staff: technicians mainly in China, and are concentrated in the military industry and heavy industry sectors, learning from the West to stay in the \enterprise, education and other areas, and private capital. (4) employ the principal: the main body of China undertakes the task of employing Foreign Westernization, the Meiji government in Japan, there are also differences between both authoritative and quality leader. China and Japan are also differences on hiring foreign staff conditions and the use of management. (1) Westernization in the contract signed with the foreign staff and their competence provisions of general and vague; Japan is clear and specific, and the implementation of the system of government approval. (2) employment of treatment, although the two countries are very rich, but no return programs are not uniform; Japan by the unified plan. (3) in the use of management, whether foreign staff limit the spread of Western ethics, or strictly fulfill the contract, there are also ineffective oversight and strict control of the other. The role and impact of foreign experts in the process of modernization of China and Japan, there are also differences. Westernization in the technology world, the founder of a business process, there is a superstition foreign staff, over-reliance on the phenomenon of foreign staff with little success, and in the culture of their new talent; Japan after an initial dependence to focus on training their talents, and gradually realize the talent self-sufficiency and self-sustaining development process. Lessons provided to us by the comparison, and the history of revelation: talent introduction and use of the process, it is necessary to adhere to the principle of independence; contract must establish a sound scientific management system; country's science and technology team to focus on training, and so on.

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