Diversity of Bird Community in North Luo-River Drainage Area of Yan’an in Shaanxi
|Keywords||Aves Diversity of community North Luo-River drainage area Loess plateau|
The North Luo-river drainage area of Yan’an which is located at northern Shaanxi loess plateau lost water and soil seriously. With the development of the energy sources base of northern Shaanxi, the environment problem was concerned by more and more people. Birds are sensitive to the change of environment, they can reflect the quality of environment as indication species, and the research of diversity are used extensively in the practical work. So, in order to realize the diversity of bird communities of northern Shaanxi, to offer the scientific basis for protection and exploiture of regional aves resources, and to provide theoretic support for promoting ecological construction of northern Shaanxi loess plateau, the diversity of bird in North Luo-river drainage area of Yan’an has been investigated on the aspects of community composition and construction, avifauna type, migration type and habitat type from May to Sep of 2008, and the analysis of bird communities in different months, places and habitats is also carried out by using the diverse index ofα&β, Species-abundance model and cluster analysis. The results were as follows:1. According to the result of this research and the related documents and literature, it shows that there are 215 bird species which belong to 126 genera of 54 families of 18 orders, and Passeriform birds are 126 species which take about 58.6%, non-Passeriform birds are 89 species which mainly wading bird and raptor. According to the type of migration, 69 species are residents, 73 species are summer breeders, 66 species are passengers, 7 species are winter migrants, and propagated birds (residents & summer breeders) are 142 species which take about 66.0%. According to the type of avifauna, 144 species belong to the Palaearctic realm, 40 species to the Oriental realm, 31 species to the both realm. The palaearctic species which take about 67.0% is the primary community. 2. A sum of 5034 birds were recorded which belong to 91 species of 65 genera of 40 families of 15 orders, and Passeriform birds take about 64.8%, non-Passeriform birds are mainly raptor and wading bird. According to the type of migration, 38 species are residents, 37 species are summer breeders, 16 species are passengers, and propagated birds (residents & summer breeders) take about 82.4%. According to the type of avifauna, 54 species belong to the Palaearctic realm, 20 species to the Oriental realm, 17 species to the both realm. The palaearctic species take about 59.3%. Refer to the Animal Geography of China, it is can be distinguished as Palaearctic realm, Hard to classify and Oriental realm.3. In the North Luo-river drainage area, there are 6 species have been listed as the national first-grade birds, 20 species listed as the national second-grade birds. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 2003) embodied 3 species in Appendix 1, embodied 23 species in Appendix 2, embodied 4 species in Appendix 3. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals (RDB, 1998) embodied 11 species. 8 species belong to Endemic Species of China. Besides, 9 species are provincial level protection animals of Shaanxi province. 160 species belong to national terrestrial wildlife of China for protect with benefit or important economic, scientific value. 20 species are listed into the Convention for Protecting Migrants and Habitats between China and Australia, 73 species are listed into Convention for Protecting Migrants and Habitats between China and Japan.4. Combining the practical condition of the reserve, six communities of birds in North Luo-river drainage area of Yan’an were divided, including Forest, Bush, Riverside, Grass, Village, and Farmland. We also analysed the bird communities’character in the six habitats. Besides, the discussing of bird communities’diversity and evenness indices at different months, places and habitats is carried out by using the diverse index ofα&β.5. The analysis is carried out to the Species-abundance model of bird communities in different months, places and habitats. The result shows that it basically obeyed the Preston normal distribution. There are more species appeared in the middle state, rare and enrichment species are less, the rare species are obviously more than enrichment species.6. Base on the number of bird species and individual quantity, the cluster analysis was conducted among the different months, places and habitats, and clustering chart of similarity has been made either. The results were as follows: 1. the similarity between May and June-July are the highest, then the August and September. 2. The similarity between Fuxian and Huangling are the highest, then the Fuxian and Luochuan. Wuqi and Zhidan are difference from the others obviously. 3. The similarity between Village and Farmland are the highest, then the Forest and Bush, Grass has the obvious difference with the others. Generally, the similarity of different months and places are better, but not the different habitats.