|Keywords||India Colonial period Census Benevolent despotism Religion Caste|
Fifteenth national census of India is officially launched in April 2010, re-started after an absence of eight years of caste census, a move that has been opposed by most people, the main reason is the legacy of colonial census social concerns. Grasp the basis of the census report in 1872 -1911 years, the combination of the late 19th century and early 20th century, the British ruled India \. The text is divided into three parts: The first part outlines the period of British India to take the form of rule - \It is not only the mitigation measures taken after the British Government to draw the lessons of the 1858 Indian uprising, is also taken by the pressure of domestic public opinion about the the Empire burden 'compromise. On the one hand, the British measure of the scale of the West India, always stressed the colonial rule of reasonableness. On the other hand, in order to guarantee the stability of the British rule, the colonists considered necessary for an appropriate increase in the interests of the Indians. This domination Features census, is bound to the \The second part of the analysis of the census of the colonial period, Indian society \British colonists through numerous census practice to give independent India leaves mature census, Indians to integrate into a community in the level of consciousness, and laid the foundation for the budding nationalism, and solve many social problems through the results of the census , to some extent, to protect the people's well-being and development of the country. Explore the colonial period to the third part of the census, religious and caste-based Indian society \In the religious aspect, the colonial government, manufacturing is defined through generalization Hindu Hinduism is a teaching dominate, between India and Muslim population, to achieve the purpose of \Lead to the strengthening of caste consciousness in caste, not only through meticulous classification based on public opinion in the caste order the sequence arranged stimulate caste status within compete exacerbated the level of inter-caste, equal conflict caste ask. The article pointed out that independent India inherited the colonial period census practice in the implementation of the census, how to correctly handle the problems left behind by the colonists, require careful consideration.