Research on Evolution of the Two Party System during the American Civil War
|Keywords||Two party system Civil war Politics|
Modernistic party is a result of political/economic development and class conflict.During the period of Washington, there was no dispute between partys for their different idea was just buried; However, as the construction went on after the founding of the state, differences on how to manage the country come into being in the hierarchy of political elite, then two representative party appeared:one was federal party headed by Hamilton and the other one was anti-federal party headed by Jefferson.Afterwards, with polarizing and reforming for several times, two parties were built formally on the civil war eve: Democratic Party and Democratic Party.Then they ruled the country in turn,bipartisan system began to form.Radically,the bipartisan system before the civil war was for the economic interest dispute between the northern bourgeoisie in industry and commerce and southern slave-master in plantation, and the struggle on how to build an "American system".The struggle between two economic system was at the core of two parties, but the struggle on how to build an "American system" was a indirect combat for custom duty and civil reform. The western land question aroused by slavery, namely the battle for building state on western part evolved a control of Congress and a contest of presidency between two parties.From the dispute over Missouri to the compromise of two parties in Bleeding Kansas, what explained was that it was impossible to solve the slavery crisis according to compromise.So under the situation that the contradiction couldn’t be solved, the party come to split apart and reform.Republican party, built in 1854, won the president election in 1860, and western apart solve the salivary crisis according to war.The division of democratic party made the northern democratic party outshine others, but there was also a contradiction on economic system.Land question and slavery on western apart became focus for two southern and northern parties.The Lincoln government rallied own party and northern democratic party to solve the problems about slavery and western land according to "The Emancipation Proclamation"and "homestead law".Besides,confronting the differences within the party, Lincoln allied the Republican Party with an excellent skill and realized the the party ’ s program.The custom duty was increased, bank system was built,pacific railway was constructed,the telegram and submarine cable was set up, all these measures firmed up the bipartisan system and Lincoln got support from northern bourgeoisie in industry and commerce,western farmers and immigrants, continued in office in 1864.One of the characters in civil war is the cooperation and struggle between northern democratic party and republican party,the Lincoln government acceptted the war party to enter the cabinet but hit the peace party. The development of bipartisan system during the civil war influenced the politics, economy and social culture of America greatly.Many systems created by republican party, such as national congress and cross-party cooperation are used as as a source of reference for two parties in the future.The struggle of two parties in civil war is good for constitutional democracy’s development and extend the domination of two parties,especially get support from western farmers,which make the republican party be constantly in office in the following 30 years. A series of laws passed by republican party make a contribution for American constitutional democracy.The southern plantation disappeared and southern democratic party died out according to civil war. Along with the promotability of second industrial revolution, the American party system became a monopoly capitalist class’s two-party system.It was finally fixed after the war.