Research on Influencing Factors of Employees’ Voluntary Work Behaviors
|School||China University of Geosciences|
|Keywords||organizational citizenship behavior counterproductive work behavior structural equation model|
In a highly competitive and rapid renewal era of knowledge economy, employees have become the core competitiveness of enterprises. A health, long-term development of corporate depends not only on employees’job duties, but also their ownership spirit which enables them to exbihit more positive ex-role behavior while eliminating the negative one. The former kind of behavior is widely acclaimed as organizational citizenship behavior, while the latter one is counterproductive work behavior which is a new challenge for managers. How to manage the two kinds of behavior effectively have a significant impact on the performance of individuals and organizationsAs organizational citizenship behavior is beneficial to the long-term development of organizations, it has received widespread attentions and exploring practice from the business and academic world. However as the damage caused by counterproductive work behavior emerges gradually in recent years, counterproductive work behavior has becoming a hot issue in Human Resources Management and Organizational Behavior as well as its influencing factors. All previous studies, especially the fruitful study of organizational citizenship behavior, have laid a solid theoretical foundation for this thesis.However, two problems have been found with the present literature in theoretical and empirical research on organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior: (1) the research on them has ignored the integration work, and conduct the research on organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior perspectively; therefore there still lacks of theoretical and empirical research on the integration of organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. (2)the research on the influencing factors of the two kinds of behavior is a little messy. The present researches have shown a bias toward single or double factors influencing organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Although a few research do investigate more factors, it lacks of classification and integration which makes the researches seem a little bit messy.To further understand these two kinds of behavior, it is better to do research on their influencing factors. It is widely recognized that human behavior is the interaction results of both internal human factors and external environment factors. As the main content of organizational environment and culture, organizational atomosphere can guide the behavior of employees. As an intrinsic traits, personality trait is the internal factor which induce employee behavior. As for affect, theoretically it is a mediating process from behavior budding and occuring.In the light of those conditions mentioned above, this paper carries out a detailed description and analysis on the concepts, dimensions and influencing factors of organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. On the basis of that, such factors as personality trait, organizational atomosphere and affect designed from the perspective of individuals and organizations, are taken into account in order to develop an influencing factor model of organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. That is, a contextual model where personality trait, organizational atomosphere and affect influence both organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. The thesis will verify the hypothesis based on 159 questionnaires by means of path Analysis of Structural Equation Model. The method of regression analysis is also uesed to explore the relationships between different varibles. It is hoped that this thesis will further the integration research on organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior to improve the existing theory of employees’voluntary work behavior. It is also hoped that it can provide some scientific insights into manage employees’voluntary work behavior effectively for enterprises. The main conclusions of this research are as following.(1)Integration model of employees’voluntary work behavior is verified. Specifically, organizational climate has a significant and direct effect on organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. But the mediation role of affect has not been verified; personality trait affects organizational citizenship behavior through positive affect, while it affects counterproductive work behavior via negative affect. And there is no direct significant effect between personality trait and organizational citizenship behavior as well as counterproductive work behavior, indicating that affect plays a complete mediating role between personality trait and employees’voluntary work behavior.(2) Organizational climate affects voluntary work behavior of employees directly. Regression analysis shows that "consideration from leader", which is the dimension of organizational climate,has significant positive effect on two dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior:"organizational-level citizenship behavior" and "organizational identification". "Consideration from leader" also affects all three dimensions of counterproductive work behavior, highlighting the important role of leader in organizations. However, "co-worker relationship and work preparation" only affects one dimension of organizational citizenship behavior "individual-level citizenship behavior" positively and one dimension of counterproductive work behavior "political deviant" negatively.(3) Affect plays mediation role between personality trait and employees’voluntary work behavior. Regression analysis shows that altruistic dimension of personality trait has significantly positive effect on positive affect and significantly negative effect on negative affect. While conscientiousness dimension of personality trait have no effect on both kinds of affect. The dimensions of positive affect:"internal positive psychological state"and "external vigor state" have positive affects on organizational citizenship behavior, while only one dimension of negative affect:"negative internal psychological state" can affect counterproductive work behavior nagatively.The originality of this paper lies in two points. Firstly, the research on counterproductive work behavior, the dark side of employees behaviors with which this paper is concerned lies in the frontier of management and organizational behavior field. Former researches rarely did integration research both organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Therefore,this thesis constructs integration model on influencing factors of employees’ voluntary work behavior based on the theories on organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Secondly, the previous studies gave more emphasis on single factors, this research adopts both factors at individual and organizational level. Moreover the interation model is verified by structural equation model and regression analysis which is hoped to expand the study on antecedent variables of employees’ voluntary work behavior.