In this study, the development of Guizhou Province regional geology and geomorphology, climate conditions and rocky desertification status quo, Guizhou Karst rocky desertification area is divided into four research areas of the west, southwest, east, south. Applications typical analysis method, combined with the current division of desertification hierarchical classification, different rock and different ecological background conditions of the soil samples were collected in the four study areas. In this study, through the analysis of soil physical and chemical character variation characteristics, combined with its relationship with the the Rocky Desertification development process related to depth karst rocky desertification area in wasteland background conditions and its environmental effects, the main conclusions obtained are as follows: (1) stone desert process, very intense rocky wasteland soil sand content, and fine clay content is relatively low, and decreases with the intensification of the rocky desertification degree. Woodland → grass → agricultural land with the Eco-mode: → wasteland change, fine clay content of the soil showed a downward trend, while the eastern and southern sand, coarse silt and fine clay content is basically more evenly. The clay content increased with the deepening of the level of the soil profile. (2) With more rocky desertification degree, soil erosion, the greater its organic matter content is also reduced, and the west than southwest of soil organic matter content. Organic matter content of the performance of various eco mode wasteland > B> C layer content. (Note: << far less than; >> far greater than) (3) no significant stone soil total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and available potassium extremely intense rocky desertification gradually reduced, and the trend is getting smaller and smaller, and soil available phosphorus did not show the same Variation. And different regions of Guizhou wasteland soil organic matter and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium content: southwest> west. (4) of Guizhou karst rocky desertification area of ??soil nitrogen and nitrogen content: woodland >>> grass> wasteland of the agricultural land, soil phosphorus, potassium, and available phosphorus → → grass with the woodland farm → wasteland this ecological model changes in available potassium no similar law. (5) on the soil profile, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content expressed as: woodland> grassland> agricultural land wasteland, where woodland various indicators content changes in the section on the most dramatic. (6) soil clay and organic matter, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, potassium, available potassium, there is a significant positive correlation; organic matter and total nitrogen, available nitrogen and available phosphorus performance significantly a positive correlation with the total K, available K showed a very significant positive correlation; the soil coarse silt, sand and organic matter, total nitrogen and nitrogen between the alkaline hydrolysis no obvious relationship. (7) to establish the the wasteland soil physical and chemical indicators of the Guizhou Karst rocky desertification area. With rocky desertification degree no significant rocky desertification pole strength rocky desertification development indicators showed a significantly lower trend, and the variation of the more weak. The different rock soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium indicators may serve as a nutritional indicators of the ecological environment of rocky desertification. (8) as the uncultivated time growth, its physical and chemical indicators have improved texture also tends to be good. With the abandonment time frame goes on wasteland under natural conditions, re-use is feasible. Thus prompt the wasteland soil recovery from the wasteland also the direction of the forests and grasslands to proceed, to both ecological environmental effects as well as economic efficiency of agriculture, timely and appropriate use of wasteland has been restored. (9) compared to other ecological wasteland, and the foundation of its texture and nutritious substances are poor. (10) the wasteland of land ecological \. Proceed from the wasteland grass to forests, improve wildland soil environment; government departments to strengthen management of land use, to eliminate human destruction; to intensify propaganda widely popular knowledge of rocky desertification effect, to take a series of biological measures for its karst rocky desertification recovery and reconstruction of the region's ecological environment.