Dissertation > Mathematical sciences and chemical > Chemistry > Organic Chemistry > Organic Chemistry general issues > Properties of organic compounds > Chemical properties of organic reactions

Fluorous Biphase Systems Formed by Perfluorous Nonene and Its Application in Esterification and Nitration

Author ZhuJianPing
Tutor ShiHongZuo
School Zhejiang University of Technology
Course Applied Chemistry
Keywords perfluorous nonene fluorous biphase system esterification nitration
CLC O621.25
Type Master's thesis
Year 2006
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Perfluorous nonene is a new green solvent and possesses general characters of perfluorous solvent. Perfluorous nonene formed binary fluorous biphase systems with hexane, cyclohexane, heptane, ethyl ether, tetrachloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, ethyl acetate; formed ternary fluorous biphase systems with hexane / acetone, hexane / chloroform, cyclohexane / acetone, heptane / acetone, heptane / chloroform. The critical mutual soluble temperatures and components of each phase depended on the changing of the proportion of perfluorous nonene and organic solvents.The equimolar esterifications of formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, buteric acid or caprylic acid with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, n-pentanol or 2-ethyl hexanol were studied respectively. Perfluorous nonene in reaction system made the esterification equilibrium move rightly and the yields of esterification increase 10 % - 89 %. The esterification yields of phenylformic acid with ethanol or n-propanol increased 15.5 % and 36.0 % respectively in presence of perfluorous nonene and toluene. Perfluorous nonen and H2SO4 were recovered and reused easily.The optimal conditions for toluene nitration in perfluorous nonene were: n ( toluene ) : n ( 95% nitric acid ) : n ( 98% sulfuric acid ) : n ( perfluorous nonene ) = 1 : 1 : 0.5: 0.06, D.V.S = 2.23, t = 5h, T = 50℃. The yield could reach 81.5 %, p / o = 0.65. The perfluorous nonene were recycled several times with little loss.

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