Studies on the Preparation and Purification of Fumeol from Different Materials and Liquid Smoked Technology of Sausage
|School||Guangdong Ocean University|
|Course||Agricultural Products Processing and Storage|
|Keywords||Eucalyptus coconut shell bamboocane 3-benzopyrene Macro absorption resin liquid smoking method|
Smoked meat is very favorite because of its unique flavor and colour. However, there are many harmful substances such as PAHs in smoked meat producing by traditional methods, which threaten human health. At present, traditional smoked method is gradually replaced by liquid smoked method because of its unique advantages. Now the kind of fumeol in our country is very single. So, choosing suitable materials to produce new fumeols by distillation process will reduce the content of carcinogen, enrich the classes of smoked fragrance and promote the development of liquid smoked technology.Through analysing the basic ingredients of eucalyptus, bamboocane andcoconut shell, we can conclude that the content of cellulose and hemicellulose in bamboocane is highest while the content of lignin is minimum; the content of hemicellulose in coconut shell is lowest, and cellulose and lignin is placed in the middle; the content of lignin in eucalyptus is highest of the three materials, and the content of cellulose is the lowest in the three, hemicellulose content is placed in the middle. The content of phenolic compounds and carbonyl compounds is determined by the content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.The preparation conditions of the eucalyptus fumeol, bamboocane fumeol and coconut shells fumeol are determined through single-factor and orthogonal experiments using the content of phenolic compounds, carbonyl compounds and B(a)P as the index. The best distillation conditions are: eucalyptus fumeol distillation temperature is 400℃, voltage is 220 V and particle size is 2.00 cm; Coconut shell fumeol distillation temperature is 350℃, voltage is 190 V and particle size is 2.00 cm; Bamboocane fumeol distillation temperature is 350℃, the voltage is 160 V, particle size is 0.90 cm. Contrast the three smoky fragrance produced by the best conditions, the content of carbonyl compounds in bamboocane smoked fluid is highest and the content is 20.982 g/100 mL, meanwhile,the content of B(a)P is also the highest.The content of phenolic substances in coconut shell is highest,the content is 26.134 mg/mL, but the content of B(a)P is lowest.Because there is a certain amount of B(a)P in new fumoels, it will be no difference with smoked meat producing by traditional method if add the new fumeols into meat directly. Therefore it is needed to adopt certain method to reduce its content and remove it in order to ensure the safety of meat products. This paper adopts six macroporous adsorption resins D-101, X-5, XAD-4, DM-2, DM-130, DM-131 to reduce the content of B(a)P. The paper will research the static adsorption conditions of the six resins in order to choose the suitable resin.The content of B(a)P in bamboocane smoked fluid is highest, so choose bamboocane fumeol as adsorption target. Through the experiment of static adsorption of various factors, concluding that XAD-4 macroporous adsorptive resin was choosed, 10.00 mL bamboocane fumeols without diluted, 2.00 g resin, and adsorption at room temperature. Desorption agent was 95% ethanol for 30.00 mL.The B(a)P was adsorped by the macroporous adsorption resin so as the phenols. So the treated fumeols will be used to smoke enema, and flavor, colour and B(a)P of smoked enema were analyzed in order to detect the quality of the fumeols.This paper uses eucalyptus, coconut shells, and bamboocane fumeols smoking sausage. Taking sensory evaluation as index, choose the best technology for three fumeols by single factor experiment. And then contrast the quality of three smoked sausageas. According to the single factor experiment results, the quality of smoked sausage using bamboocane fumeol is better. So choose bamboocane fumeol smoking the enema and do the response surface test. The experiment was designed by Design Expert 7.0 software. Choosing bamboocane fumeol diluted times, additives, dipping time and drying time as the factors, it is concluded that the response surface model is significantly and the optimum technological conditions are: bamboocane fumeol diluted times is 4.58, additives for 34.46%, dipping time for 1.59 h, drying time for 1.45 h. The color, quality and structure of smoked enema is good, and the content of B(a)P is very low analysed by HPLC. Meanwhile, using GC-MS analyzes its main flavor substances, it is concluded that there are 21 kinds of compounds, including seven kinds of phenolic, seven kinds of aldehydes, five kinds of acids, two kinds of ketone.