Research on ‘TianHuang’ Pear Tree, the Growth and Development Characters of Fruit and Mineral Nutrition
|School||Central South University of Forestry Science and Technology|
|Keywords||' Emperor ' pear Tree Fruit Growth and development Mineral elements|
'Emperor' pear is a fine sand pear varieties imported from South Korea. The field test observations, nutrients and paraffin sections anatomy, dynamic process of growth and development, the formation and development of the pulp of the 'Emperor' pear foliage fruit, leaves and fruits containing mineral ingredients as well as the year-on-year development cycle. observational study of the system. The main results are as follows: (1) 'The Mikado' pears branches slightly growth characteristics: 1-year growth of branches generally longer, an average of 70.29cm Bud full enrichment, but the flower buds lower rate of only 34.18%, mainly located in upper . The tree flowers fruit rate up to 61.67%. The spur, sticks, long sticks very large difference of the number of total branches and shoots total length. In growth, spur results-based growth and the least amount of long branch growth, accounting for 85.63% of all shoot growth. 'Emperor' pear shoot growth growth and 2 times growth. Only 1 times the growth of the new shoot growth time is short, and eventually develop into a spur and in the sticks, 2 shoots of growth and development for a long time, and eventually develop into long sticks. Tree leaf curtain formed in early May. No correlation between the growth of new shoots and leaves. (2) 'Emperor' pear fruit growth and development characteristics: 'Emperor' pears in Zhuzhou in the end of March, flowering, fruit ripening in early mid-September, the growth cycle for the 150d to 175d. 'Emperor' pear longitudinal, transverse diameter of daily growth of three growth peak. A growth peak is the flesh period of rapid cell division, cell number, a significant increase in small cells, no significant differences in cell size and morphology of the various parts of the tightly packed, slow growth in volume and weight; 2 peak growth period is the flesh cell volume rapidly inflating stage, the different speeds of the various parts of the cell volume enlargement, increases gradually from outside to inside, a rapid increase in the volume, the weight of the fruit; the growth peak 3, pulp cell volume continued enlargement, inclusions accumulate, fruit weight and quality to achieve a better state. The fruit table the cortex in early development on the distribution of many stomata and lenticels replaced soon, and the formation of fruit-point. Fruit stone cell development earlier, on April 12 that a single stone cells, to early July the number of Sclereids basically stable. Embryos from early April, experienced during the 2 cells of the original embryo, rod proembryos, spherical proembryo to early June, the embryo has been basically mature, complete germ radicle, hypocotyl, cotyledon. (3) 'Emperor' pear fruit period of growth and development of its volume and weight were tested extremely significant positive correlation, its volume linear regression equation was Y = -133.499 4.418X, its weight, the linear regression equation is Y = - 134.138 4.435X. Fruit longitudinal, transverse diameter and volume also showed a significant positive correlation among the linear regression equation Y = -155 122 7651.395X1 907.398X2 (transverse diameter as independent variables X1, longitudinal diameter as the independent variable X2 volume of the dependent variable). (4) 'Emperor' pear leaves anniversary of the changes in the characteristics of the mineral elements: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium content in the leaves are the highest in the young fruit, to minimize fruit maturity. The calcium content of the contrary, the lowest in the young fruit, fruit maturity to achieve the highest nitrogen and calcium variations, gentle changes of other elements. Fruit harvest to the end of September, the order of these mineral elements content in leaves: calcium gt; nitrogen gt; potassium gt; magnesium gt; phosphorus. Calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium leaves were tested extremely significant negative correlation, and several other mineral elements were highly significant positive correlation. The end of June to mid-July, initially identified as the 'Emperor' pear leaf nutrient diagnostic sampling suitable period. (5) 'Emperor' pear fruit anniversary of the changes in the characteristics of the mineral elements: fruit of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium content of regular changes of a gradually descending from the young fruit to fruit maturity. Variation of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium gently changes. The order of several mineral element content in fruit ripening: potassium gt; nitrogen gt; phosphorus gt; magnesium gt; calcium. Fruit year cycle among the mineral elements were tested highly significant positive correlation. Single fruit in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, five kinds of mineral elements content in a certain stage was gradually increasing trend, the cumulative amount of the young fruit is smaller, the cumulative amount of fruit development in the late Throughout the growth and development period, the growth rate of single fruit in potassium has been positive, and other nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium fruit were all negative growth. 75 d after flowering (June 14) before and after the 'Emperor' pear fruit absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and the peak of these elements. (6) 'There was a significant positive correlation between Emperor' pear leaves and fruits of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, There was a significant negative correlation between. Different growth stages was a significant positive correlation showed significant negative correlation with the fruit and leaf nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium leaves. Mineral elements in leaves and fruits and fruit weight were tested were significantly correlated, and mineral elements in the leaves and fruit weight better.