Study on the Development of Chinese Cultural Trade under the Global Financial Crisis
|School||Dongbei University of Finance|
|Keywords||Cultural trade Cultural industries Financial crisis Post-crisis era|
With economic globalization and cultural exchanges between countries to deepen cultural trade on a global scale and the rapid development of the economy changing the traditional form of the world situation, economic trends have an important influence, has become a driving economic growth, foster innovation, strengthen national, regional comprehensive competitiveness of the important factors that increasingly attracted international attention and become a new field of international trade competition. From the cultural trade itself, due to cultural trade transactions involving objects of cultural goods and services, cultural goods and services, to convey ideas, values ??and lifestyles, so compared with other trade, culture, trade is more sensitive, more penetration force in the importing country in terms of ideology consumer impact. In addition, cultural goods and cultural services, externalities, social welfare and cultural industries and other industries and information and other characteristics that have made communion cultural trade and general trade is very different form. Determines the specificity of cultural trade it in a sensitive country's international trade position and importance. So how to make good use of existing trade rules, proactive and flexible development of cultural trade for all countries, particularly developing countries, is of great strategic significance. In developed countries such as the United States and Japan, cultural trade has become an important engine of economic development. Since 1996, America's cultural industry will exceed aerospace industry has become the largest export earner; British cultural industry has developed to a very large scale, to 2001, created by the cultural industry output value of nearly 90 billion pounds, more than any kind of traditional manufacturing value created; Japanese culture industry is bigger than the electronics and automotive industry is even larger, as of the end of 2005, Japan and anime-related market has more than 2 trillion yen, Japan's animation industry third largest industry; Australian cultural industry output value of nearly 20 billion Australian dollars, is Australia's tertiary industry a pillar industry and major export industries. In the past three decades, China's economy has made achievements that attracted worldwide attention, while foreign trade in particular, rapid progress. 2001 China joined the WTO, has been the rapid development of foreign trade in total trade in 2004 reached $ 1.15 million historical levels, and surpassed Germany to become the world's third largest exporter. However, in spite of China's foreign trade in culture has made some achievements, but in general, still stuck in the small-scale, low efficiency and low production of the primary stage, and far behind the increase in the overall growth of foreign trade, and there is a huge the deficit. 2008 outbreak of the global financial crisis, the first of the financial markets in most developed countries have had a serious impact, triggering a worldwide economic turmoil and recession. The global economic crisis is like a magnifying glass, the drawbacks of the traditional development model exposed, some had been concealed or ignored contradictory, under the impact of the crisis suddenly intensified and release. Cultural industries and the economy has a close relationship, as the financial crisis deepening and expansion of national cultural industries and trade is also subject to varying degrees. Cultural trade, cultural exports have been an important part of international trade in the financial crisis, countries are subject to different degrees of cultural market impact, and thus the export of cultural goods and services some impact. Although the international cultural patterns in the short term does not change significantly, but by the impact of the macroeconomic situation in the post-crisis development of cultural industries to seize the opportunities of the countries and regions most likely in taking advantage of this crisis, occupying the cultural map of the world advantageous position. If in the 1930s the U.S. economic crisis, but the Hollywood movie, but the momentum to take off, the United States has become one of the pillar industries; 1997 Asian financial crisis, South Korea seize the opportunity to adjust the domestic industrial structure, promote the rise of cultural industries so as to enhance its overall national strength . Although the financial crisis on China's impact on cultural trade has not yet fully apparent, but in the international cultural trade patterns affected, developed a leading role in weakening the post-crisis era, the Chinese cultural trade face more opportunities than challenges. Has a rich cultural heritage of China, although has become the world's third largest trading power, has a huge and still increasing trade surplus, but long-term culture in the international trade in a deficit position. With the soft power of culture in enhancing the overall national strength significantly increasing role, through the development of foreign trade in culture culture to enhance China's international status and influence, China's economic development has become an important strategic decision. In addition, the financial crisis led to the global economic slowdown, China's exports to China dropped but also the adjustment and upgrading of domestic industries brings power and opportunities. Cultural industries as a creative core of the emerging industry in crisis can promote China's economic growth and transformation play an important role. In summary, explore the post-crisis era of cultural products trade development strategy on China to play a cultural advantage, optimize trade structure and further enhance international competitiveness, has important practical significance. The significance of this innovation from the perspective of the financial crisis, trade and Chinese culture in the new era of domestic cultural industry challenges and opportunities surrounding this subject, the article first before the crisis domestic cultural industries and trade status were detailed review and analysis, followed by the world financial crisis to the control culture industry opportunities and challenges of post-crisis export of China's cultural industry and cultural development of enterprises put forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions. This article includes seven chapters. Chapter gives an overview of the full text of background knowledge, from the rise of cultural industries era of opportunity, social background analysis, combining domestic scholars in related fields of theoretical research, elaborated on the development of cultural trade promote China's economic restructuring and enhance China's comprehensive national strength and international competitiveness of the importance of this international financial crisis on the relevant circumstances a brief introduction; second chapter is the first of cultural industries, cultural products and thus provides a basic definition of cultural trade, then introduced the related theory and cultural trade. Since there is no uniform definition of the scope of the world cultural industries, cultural product categories have different requirements, this paper UNESCO related definitions and classifications as the main basis. For trade-related and cultural theory, respectively, from traditional comparative advantage, demand similarity theory, and the relatively new cultural discounts and lipstick effect theory was introduced. In the third chapter review and analysis of the financial crisis before the outbreak of the international status of cultural industries and trade, and the Chinese cultural industry and cultural history and status as a key trade elaborate analyzes recent decades China's achievements and cultural trade deficiencies. China's cultural industry started late, but rapid growth, Chinese cultural products exports in world trade in culture the proportion of total exports increased year by year. However, due to the export structure is not balanced, Chinese cultural products trade deficit suffered serious development is limited problems. Chinese exports of cultural products, there are lack of product innovation, as well as the flow of a single marketing is not in place, the brand shortage. The first chapter of this paper studied the causes of the crisis and pathways, and on this basis, from the perspective of specific industries to explain to the world financial crisis and China's cultural industry of the adverse effects of key industries. In the U.S. as the main support of the Hollywood film industry, the first to suffer heavy losses, the emergence of creative reduced investment, film and television production is limited, lower promotional costs and other issues. American theatrical industry also suffered a reduction in people's income and the basic tax increase affected the emergence of a significant reduction in the audience dilemma. British industry and the art trade show industry were forced to prematurely appeared in repertory performances and art trade decline in the number of situations. In Asia, Japan's animation industry in the production of the financial crisis brought about by reduced funding, animation companies such as layoffs and reduced pressure on the market, while the South Korean film industry is also due to the financial crisis has led to lack of investment in film and television works, the major TV stations have to reduce domestic drama playback volume, while advertising revenue taxes sharply. The fifth chapter is the focus of this chapter. The chapter from two angles on the financial crisis to the Chinese cultural industry and trade opportunities and challenges are analyzed in detail. First, the financial crisis and spread along the time context, analysis and comparison of the financial crisis on China's cultural industry and trade. The beginning of the crisis, China's cultural industry and cultural products trade also encountered performance market downturn, entertainment industry performance landslide, Chinese art in the international market demand and other issues, however, according to the data show that, over time, China's cultural industry affected the larger is related cultural products industries, such as the production of sports equipment and other supplementary industries, while the core cultural industries are limited impact in some sectors even bucked the market trend growth. Followed by an analysis of specific cultural industry also proved this point: news publishing and copyright services sector, global economic volatility makes the public to understand the economic situation and future economic trends attention than ever before, driven by economic book sales, The digital publishing industry news publishing industry to become an important economic growth point; radio, television, film services, despite the poor performance of the broadcast media is, 2008 years ago, three quarters of decline in ad spending growth, but television advertising revenue remained stable, 2008 Full China's domestic movie box office for the first time to enter the global top ten; networking cultural services, the financial crisis and the resulting impact of reduced investment, China's Internet economy market growth from the third quarter of 2008 began to decline, in spite of online advertising generally in good shape, and online games, online shopping in the financial crisis, the cold fire. Art auction market, affected by financial crisis, investors and collectors caught shot cautious frequent auctions art trade turnover dropped, too many unsold paintings phenomenon because their bids. Performing on the market, some of the awards ceremony and performances by the financial crisis, have been closed or canceled, however, to the end of 2008 Beijing Shanghai and other cities and performing arts market began to pick up, a Shanghai, for example, by the end of 2008 to early 2009 a large-scale concert Although the number has decreased compared to the same period in previous years, but most of the concert box office receipts remain with the same period a considerable level. Chapter VI of this paper to the United States and Korea, for example, an overview of their past financial crisis and economic downturn to protect and develop their cultural industries and trade success stories, and on this basis, the Chinese cultural products as well as the unique advantages of this After the financial crisis to make further changes in the international cultural landscape analysis, the final two angles from industries and enterprises, trade and culture of the Chinese culture in the post-crisis era of industrial development proposed. Chapter VII summarizes the whole text, based on full analysis articles pointed out that China Cultural Trade in the post-crisis period more opportunities than challenges. China's cultural industry should be adjusted on the basis of both internal full use of external opportunities, develop culture of foreign trade, and further enhance China's comprehensive strength and international influence.