NVOCC NVOCC business qualifications has reached 1621, this huge body began its present name appears January 1, 2002 started the implementation" />
|School||China University of Political Science|
|Keywords||NVOCC Consignor NVOCC Carrier liability Contract of carriage of goods by sea Actual carrier International maritime transport of goods Cargo Bill of lading Management qualifications|
As of March 25, 2005 to obtain our NVOCC' dissertation">NVOCC NVOCC business qualifications has reached 1621, this huge body began its present name appears January 1, 2002 started the implementation of the \Republic of maritime regulations \regulations, NVOCC, refers to the non-vessel operating common carrier to carrier identity of the shipper's cargo acceptance, issue its own bill of lading or other transport document, the shipper freight charges by international shipping operators to complete the International maritime transport of goods, assume responsibilities of the carrier operating activities of international maritime transport of goods. According to this definition NVOCC characteristics with the following aspects: First, NVOCC based on the identity of the carrier to accept the cargo shipper, issue to the shipper NVOCC bill of lading as the shipper of its contract of carriage of goods by sea between the proof. Which determines the NVOCC Unlike traditional freight forwarders, shippers assume it is accountable to the carrier's responsibilities and obligations, while enjoying the carrier's rights conferred by maritime law. Second, NVOCC through international shipping operators concluded with a shipper to fulfill its international contract of carriage of goods by sea, NVOCC not shipowner, not the ship operators, charterers are not. NVOCC and international shipping operators to bill of lading between the maritime transport of goods in order to prove the contractual relationship with the international shipping operators is the relationship between the shipper and carrier relationships, but also the carrier and the actual carrier relationships. Third, NVOCC business characteristics determine its participation to two back to back into a contract of carriage of goods by sea, any defective performance of the contract are likely to affect the interests of three parties - the shipper, NVOCC and actual carrier, and led NVOCC involves two transport contract disputes. Most NVOCC practice and strive to make two back to back contract of carriage to achieve complete, making it the rights, obligations and responsibilities to achieve balance. But because business needs combined with traditional laws applicable to their particular identity dilemma faced by, NVOCC contract to realize two back to back is not easy, so this industry is highly risky. Fourth, as a NVOCC cargo international shipping operators (the actual ocean carrier) interposed between, does not own the ship, the ship does not operate charter, which it lacks legal obligations and responsibilities of the ship value guarantee, so its financial strength and solvency very limited, while its business and associated with high risk, which determines the NVOCC healthy and stable development of the industry needs a favorable administrative supervision and adjustment of the rights and obligations perfect laws and regulations, the only way to make business activities according to the law, the only way to truly ensure the long-term foreign trade and transport healthy development.